Before the arrival of the Europeans, who came from the sea, the population spread to West Africa by land and from the north; but little is known about the conditions in which this happened. JD Falconer has found a fossilized desert surface in the northern provinces and believes the desert has advanced and retreated several times with climate changes that may ultimately be related to those observed in Kenya, Egypt, etc. In addition to these changes and those connected with orogenic modifications, there are others due to the activity of man who destroyed the forest. It probably extended in the past much farther Nigeria of its present limits, up to the region of the prairies.
According to WATCHTUTORIALS.ORG, it is still not possible to infer the relations that existed in West Africa between the human currents and the changes in conditions that we have mentioned; but as proof of the wide distribution of racial types one can cite the opinion of Sir H. Johnston, according to which many natives of the Gold Coast and the Niassa region are practically identical, despite the enormous distance that separates them. However, while the conquest imposed a similarity of language between the populations of equatorial and southern Africa (Bantu languages), in West Africa a remarkable mixture of languages is observed among the populations which, under the push of conquerors from the Nigeria and especially from Islām, they gathered towards and into the humid and warm forests of the Guinean coast.
The older elements can be called black and are usually tall, with long arms, a broad flat nose, prognose jaws, long skulls, very dark complexions and frizzy hair.
Their religion is mainly based on magic and animism; human sacrifices to the dead and cannibalism are important features. Remarkable are the musical abilities. Anthropomorphic imagination associates an object with a spirit that inhabits it and this principle can degenerate into the worship of the object itself, the so-called fetish. The residents of the forest have usually organized themselves under chiefs or kings who in some cases are the representatives of recent conquerors from the north. In other regions, where conquerors and conquered are at odds, secret societies take on importance. The great human sacrifices in the capitals of Ascianti, Dahomey, Benin, etc., offered as a tribute (by widows, slaves, etc.) to the dead, find analogies among the ancient Sumerians.
AN, the influence of Islam predominates in the open region of the plateau, although the Muslim faith has had to make various compromises with paganism there. In the Nigeria the lower class (Haussa) is often more similar in appearance to the Negro type than the dominant aristocracy, which may be of Fula or Berber origin.
The Yoruba denomination encompasses many populations of southwestern Nigeria. Other denominations are: Jekri, Ijo, Ibo, a Nigeria and E. of the Niger delta; Aro, in S. degli Ibo; Efik, Ibibio, Kwa, in the Calabar region. The Efiks are in the service of the British government. The Haussa in northern Nigeria are basically a Negro population, but their leaders embraced Islam in the 9th century. XIII. They are good farmers, good soldiers, and good traders. Among the Haussa, the Fulbè form the dominant aristocracy; they are conquerors dedicated to cattle breeding, but find themselves in the process of being absorbed by the Haussa population. Even in the northern parts of Nigeria, mostly in the vicinity of major rivers, Negro populations have hardly been touched by Islam. Such is, p. e.g., the case of the Munci, at the confluence of Niger and Benué, the Yoraghun, the Batta, the Okpoto, etc. The more advanced populations of northern Nigeria have long since organized themselves into emirates; they are distinguished from all other populations of intertropical Africa by having buildings built of stone in their cities. They also plow the land, grow cotton, indigo, fodder and have written memories. That all this is due to influences from more distant northern regions is beyond doubt. They also plow the land, grow cotton, indigo, fodder and have written memories. That all this is due to influences from more distant northern regions is beyond doubt. They also plow the land, grow cotton, indigo, fodder and have written memories. That all this is due to influences from more distant northern regions is beyond doubt.
Indigenous cities are found among the Yoruba and also in the Nigeria: among the first we can mention Ibadan, Abeokuta, Ogbomosho, etc., with a population of around 250,000 residents Ibadan, the largest, has a circuit of about 29 km. The low houses are built of mud, covered with woven thatch roofs and have an internal courtyard.
There are also mosques and idol houses; a characteristic element is formed by the open spaces shaded by trees. There is a city administration under the control of the province. Cities are centers of artisans, who work with wood, leather, mats, pottery, etc. In the Nigeria the most famous city is Kano, with an estimated population of 50,000 residents, Surrounded by walls 10-15 m high. with a perimeter of 17.5 km., in which there are 13 doors which have cowhide shutters and are arranged in large towers. As in many ancient cities, there is enough space inside the walls for crops; the houses occupy about a third of the surface enclosed by the walls. The emir’s residence is surrounded by walls in the interior of the city; the building has a large open space in front of it and is made up of a congeries of buildings, including an elaborate audience hall with a dome supported by many arches. Kano produces cotton and Moroccan artifacts, trades indigo and other dry materials and its livestock market (horses, donkeys, camels, oxen, goats) is important. The hill of Dala, inside the city, probably marks the site of the ancient city indicated on the map of Idrisi (1145); it is likely that present-day Kano has only existed for 3-400 years. The influence and the Arab trade flowed there above all with the flourishing of the Fulbè at the beginning of the century. XIX; at that time there was also a large slave market. Kano has only existed for 3-400 years. The influence and the Arab trade flowed there above all with the flourishing of the Fulbè at the beginning of the century. XIX; at that time there was also a large slave market. Kano has only existed for 3-400 years. The influence and the Arab trade flowed there above all with the flourishing of the Fulbè at the beginning of the century. XIX; at that time there was also a large slave market.
The former holiday residence of the emir, outside the city, is currently occupied by the English resident who is an adviser to the emiral government.
Until almost the end of the century. XIX no European was allowed to live in Kano and the emirs, to defend the lucrative slave trade, resisted until the city was taken by the British in 1903 and the slave trade was abolished. England bestowed the emirate on a brother of the defeated ruler and the crown is still held by his descendants.
The railway from Lagos has increased the importance of Kano, which also has commercial relations by means of caravans to the East. with Lake Chad, to the West with the stations on Niger and to the North with the Sahara.
Other notable cities are: Sokoto, religious capital of the Fulbè about 350 km. to ONO. by Kano; Katsina, to NO. by Kano; Kuka, or Kukawa, in Bornu, towards Lake Chad, and some Haussa cities, such as Zaria, Bauchi and Yola, which largely owe their development to the Fulbè. The indigenous city of Kaduna was chosen as the administrative center of the northern provinces.