Togo’s 56 km long coastal zone is narrow, low lying and consists of sandy beaches and lagoons. Within the lagoon coast is first a camp landscape (60-90 m asl), which further north gives way to a swampy plain landscape. To the northwest, the country ascends to a landscape of plateaus and low mountains. The bedrock here consists of Precambrian rocks, mostly gneiss. Here lies Mont Agou, Togo’s highest mountain with 986 meters; From here, the Togo Mountains extend throughout the country in a northeastern direction. All the way to the north, the landscape consists partly of a sandstone plateau, and partly of gneiss and granite.
The climate is dominated by the equatorial rain belt and moist onshore wind. In November-February, however, there is a drier wind from the northeast, which gives a short drying time in the north, and a marked rainfall minimum in the south. The average annual rainfall is over 1000-1500 mm. It is coolest in July-August with average temperatures around 25 ° C, warmest in February-April with average temperatures above 30 ° C in the north, slightly lower on the coast.
Plant and wildlife in Togo
Savannah is the dominant vegetation type, in the south it has large trees, among others. monkey bread, in the north it becomes more steeped. In the southernmost part and along the rivers, tropical rainforests grow, while there are mangrove forests at the lagoons along the coast.
Nearly 200 mammal species, but the land is poor in big game. African elephants, lions and cheetahs are found in the north, but considered vulnerable, hyena dogs are endangered. The primates chimpanzee, diana and ruby cat are also at risk. Leopard and sneakers are more prevalent. In the rivers, among other things, hippos, crocodiles and bats.
More than 625 bird species observed, including 50 birds of prey. Other distinctive families are cuckoos, icebergs, hornbills, beards, sunbirds and weavers. Reptile fauna of more than 100 species. In the coastal waters the Senegal Man Senate occurs.
Geography and environment
Within the coast with lagoons and sandy beaches there is a low landscape that turns north into a swampy plain. The Togo Mountains extend through the country from southwest to northeast and separate it from the northern areas by plateaus with intermediate marshlands. In the northwest lies the country’s highest mountain Mont Agou, 986 meters above sea level.
The longest river Mono (about 400 kilometers long) with bees drains most of the country and forms the lower boundary of Benin.
There is a tropical climate with humid onshore winds in the south and drier ones in the north. In November-February, a dusty dry wind blows from the northeast and provides minimum rainfall in the south. The rainfall is greatest in the summer. The annual rainfall is about 800 millimeters to the south, rising to about 1300 millimeters inland and decreasing to the north. The average temperature is 23-30 ° C. The warmest period is February-April and the coolest June-August.
It is most savanna with, among other things, monkey brothers. Nearly a third of Togo is forested and about a quarter of the area is cultivated. In the southern part and by the rivers there is tropical rainforest. On the coast there are swamps and lagoons with mangroves.
There are close to 200 species of mammals, including chimpanzees, maracats, leopards, lion giraffes and sneakers. The rivers include hippopotamuses, bats and crocodiles. Bird life is rich with about 670 species. Of reptiles there are more than 150 species. Flora and fauna are threatened by harvest.