The population of the Nile valley took on the characteristics of a human coagulation along the river when there was an accentuation of the aridity responsible for the current desertification of northern Africa. In fact, the river waters allowed, with irrigation, intensive agriculture that offered itself as a fundamental resource for a large number of men, flowing back from the surrounding regions in the process of drying up. As in Mesopotamia, the high concentration of men was at the same time an indispensable condition for hydraulic exploitation, possible precisely with a considerable availability of manpower, employed in the canalization works and in the realization of the great works of an essentially urban society. hierarchically structured. L’ social organization was in fact the direct reflection of the particular form of economic exploitation based on a complex relationship with nature. That is, it presupposed a central power, embodied by the pharaoh, which with its despotism, imposed through a rigid bureaucracy (all validated by the religious class), could keep the productive apparatus efficient. According to thesciencetutor, the affirmation of Egyptian civilization was a slow process and came with the political unification of the great Nilotic oasis; it knew its highest moments during the imposed through a rigid bureaucracy (all validated by the religious class), it could keep the productive apparatus efficient. The affirmation of Egyptian civilization was a slow process and came with the political unification of the great Nilotic oasis; it knew its highest moments during the imposed through a rigid bureaucracy (all validated by the religious class), it could keep the productive apparatus efficient. The affirmation of Egyptian civilization was a slow process and came with the political unification of the great Nilotic oasis; it knew its highest moments during the Ancient Kingdom and, a millennium later, at the time of the New Kingdom, with which the Egyptian world expanded towards the S, in Nubia. In this period the population along the Nile valley seems to have been of 7 million individuals, reduced gradually in the epochs of decadence, due to the lack of a central power capable of keeping the economic organization and, in essence, the hydraulic system on which agriculture was based. The period of greatest economic and demographic decline occurred in the century. XIV, under the dominion of the Mamluks; since then Egypt has practically never recovered, except in recent times. At the end of the century. XVIII there were just 2.4 million residents in the country, but starting from the second half of the nineteenth century there was a great demographic recovery, which brought the population from the 6.7 million recorded with the first official census of 1882 to 11, 2 million in 1907, to 18.9 in 1947, up to over 100 million in 2018. On average, in the last years of the twentieth century the population increased by one million units a year; the high rate of increase is attributable to the high birth rate (27.5 ‰ in 1998, which increased again to 31.9 ‰ in 2012), implicit in the very conception of the Muslim family, while the mortality rate, raised up to to all bilharzia, etc.), subsequently decreased considerably (6.4 ‰ in 2012). An annual growth of 21% was recorded between 1994 and 1999, to which the migratory movement practically makes no contribution. In the 19th century, numerous foreigners (English, Italians, Greeks, etc.) immigrated to Egypt, employed in various activities (entrepreneurial, commercial, financial) concentrated mainly in the cities of Lower Egypt and in the canal area; after the nationalizations of 1952 most of them left the country and today foreigners are insignificant in number. The population is composed for the vast majority of Egyptians (99.6%), who form a homogeneous ethnic group. Among the fellāḥīn, the peasants, as well as among the Copts, traders and artisans who live mainly in the cities, we often find traces of the most ancient populations, and which must have represented a mixture of African and archaic Mediterranean peoples; subsequently began the process of semitization, exalted during the Arab conquest and the Islamization of the country. Proceeding towards the S, the black, African element becomes more numerous and becomes general in Nubia. In Egyptian territory there are also nomadic, Cushitic people, such as the bishārīn, settled in south-eastern Egypt, where they migrate between the coast and the valley of the Nile. The population density is 96.15 residents/km² and is almost entirely concentrated in the Nile valley and delta, where it reaches some of the highest peaks in the world: in practice, almost all of the population is concentrated in less than 4 % of the surface of the country. The rest of the territory is home to less than one million residents. In particular, in the Western Desert a small crown of oases is inhabited, where the population is relatively dense but isolated; in the Eastern Desert, between the Nile valley and the Red Sea, the population is of an intensive type, and the residents are distributed more uniformly in the territory. The southern part of the country is also almost uninhabited in the area of Lake Nasser, Kôm Ombo. Over half of the population lives in the countryside, in villages or in scattered groups of houses (ezbahīn). The houses are simple, often of mud and brick (these are frequent in the delta area), of stone in Upper Egypt.