The time of the 19th and 20th dynasties founded by Ramses I is known as the Ramesside times. Under Seti I and his son Ramses II, the fighting with the Hittites continued (undecided battle of Kadesch 1275) until it was 1258 BC. Came to a peace treaty and later to a marriage alliance. In addition to a new residential city in the delta and several rock temples in Nubia (Abu Simbel and others), Ramses II erected numerous cult buildings and statues all over Egypt, often of colossal dimensions. Under his successors Libyans and Sea Peoples formed a new danger, but Ramses III. Defend Egypt against them. After the assassination of this king, the later Ramessids experienced rapid political and economic decline triggered by the more than 100 years of fighting against the Libyans and the Sea Peoples.
Third intermediate time
The probably already Libyan 21st dynasty resided in Tanis in the eastern Nile Delta, while in Thebes and the rest of Upper Egypt the priesthood of Amun exercised a kind of military rule under their high priest. Nubia became largely independent again, as did Palestine. After the end of the dynasty in Tanis, a Libyan prince and military leader founded around 946/945 BC. As Scheschonk I. the 22nd dynasty. From then on, foreign rulers ruled Egypt, but they adapted to the local culture to a high degree. The Libyan period, which also includes the 23rd dynasty, is characterized by the division of the country among numerous petty kings and princes, including the rulers of the 24th dynasty in the western delta. Since around 760 BC Nubian kings (Cushites or Ethiopians) penetrated into Upper Egypt. Pianchi was also able to subjugate Middle Egypt, the Libyans under Tefnachte who had advanced south, push back into the delta and finally take it. The Cushite kings reunited Egypt. The Nubian kings of this 25th dynasty developed brisk building activity in Thebes, which once again became a religious and political center. Art and literature were based on the great heyday of the past (archaism). The Assyrians conquered in 671 BC. BC the north of the country and destroyed Thebes under Assurbanipal, the Nubians had to withdraw to the south, while the Libyan princes ruled as vassals of the Assyrians.
However, Psammetich I made himself in 664 BC. Independent and founded the 26th Dynasty (“strings”). He supported himself from a. on Ionic and Carian mercenaries and opened Egypt to Greek influence; the colony of Naukratis was founded in the western delta by settlers from Miletus. Egypt supported the Assyrians in their final battle against the Babylonians and Medes and advanced once more to the Euphrates, but Necho II. Defeated by Nebuchadnezzar II at Carchemish. Also Apries fought against Babylon, but could not prevent the fall of Jerusalem, many Jews sought refuge in Egypt. Amasis kept close ties with the Greeks and their colony, Cyrene, his son Psammetich III. was 525 BC Beaten and dethronedby the Persian king Cambyses. According to internetsailors, thus Egypt had become a satrapy of the Persian Empire (27th Dynasty), but won after several revolts in 404 BC. BC independence again (28th – 30th dynasty). After a final rebloom of Egyptian culture, the land became in 343 BC. By Artaxerxes III. again for the Persians and 332 BC Conqueredby Alexander the Great.
Alexander the Great founded Alexandria, which quickly became the hub of Greek world trade and education. After his death, Egypt fell to Ptolemy I Soter (Ptolemy, Ptolemaic Empire), who was initially a satrap, from 305 BC onwards. Ruled as king. Under him and his successor Ptolemy II Philadelphus Hellenistic Egypt reached its peak and became the richest state in the Greek world. The old administrative order of the Pharaonic era was retained, but Greek became the official language, and Greek bureaucracy and Greek law enabled more effective administration. Since the end of the 3rd century, Greek rule was shaken by revolts by the exploited local population. The decline of the Ptolemaic dynasty led to repeated interventions by Rome, including by Caesar, until finally Octavian conquered Alexandria after the victory at Actium (31 BC) and the last Ptolemaic woman, Cleopatra VII., 30 BC. Chr. Killed himself.
The Roman emperors, like the Ptolemies, respected the pharaonic culture and, like them, allowed themselves to be worshiped as successors of the pharaohs. As a Roman province, Egypt was given a special status by being administered for the emperor by a prefect from the knighthood. From then on, the country formed the granary of Rome. Instead of the integration of Egyptian and Greek elements promoted by the last Ptolemies, the emperors pursued a strict policy towards the Egyptians, who were denied land ownership and access to high schools was made difficult. The exploitation led to widespread rural exodus. From 180 AD Christianity became tangible as an important force in Egypt. Its spread, also in the form of monasticism, led to the extinction of ancient Egyptian culture. After death Theodosius I (395 AD), Egypt fell to the Eastern Empire under Arcadius and remained part of the Byzantine Empire until it was conquered by the Arabs.